Between 509 BC and 27 BC, Rome was the centre of the Roman Republic (Res Publica Romana), a democratic state which voted in it's leaders to a ruling senate in regular elections. The republic was founded after the deposition of last Kings of Rome and continued until shortly after the assassination of Julius Caesar.

Many of the physical remnants of the republic have since disappeared but it's most famous legacy, it's motto lives on today and is still in use in modern Rome. Senatus populusque Romanus (The Senate and People of Rome), which shortens to SPQR can be seen all over rome from street drains to government buildings.